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    30 April 2024, Volume 45 Issue 4
    Electronic edition of this issue
    Electronic edition of this issue
    2024, 45(4):  0. 
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    Contents
    Contents
    2024, 45(4):  0. 
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    Knowledge Reasoning-based Intelligent Design Method of Kill-web
    WAN Silai, WANG Guoxin, MING Zhenjun, YAN Yan, HAO Jia
    2024, 45(4):  1025-1037.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1077
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    A knowledge reasoning-based intelligent design method of kill-web is proposed for the problems of strong dependence on human experience and low intelligence in the design of kill-web. Based on the OODA theory, a multi-level kill-web ontology including combat mission-combat capability-wWeapon equipment is constructed to model the static knowledge related to kill-web design. Three types of kill-web design rule bases, namely mission-capability-equipment mapping rule, equipment coordination rule and kill chain coordination rule, are constructed to model the dynamic knowledge related to kill-web design. Based on static knowledge and dynamic knowledge, a knowledge reasoning-based intelligent design process framework of kill-web is proposed, in which three kill-chain evaluation metrics of time, precision and cost are defined in order to quickly and intelligently design a kill-web in actual combat situations. Taking the air defense and anti-missile system of systems as an example the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on a simulation platform.

    On the Determination of Viscoelastic Model Parameters and Microstructural Damage Evolution of Solid Propellants
    WUBULIAISAN Maimaitituersun, WU Yanqing, HOU Xiao, YIN Xinmei, ZHANG Xin
    2024, 45(4):  1038-1046.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1256
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    Accurately determining the model parameters of solid propellant is of great importance for the prediction of its macroscopic mechanical response. A parameter determination method based on multi-step stress relaxation experiments is proposed to calibrate the nonlinear viscoelastic model parameters of solid propellants uncoupled. The proposed method determines the parameters for the elastic part by multi-step stress relaxation equilibrium response and the dimensionless relaxation modulus by stress relaxation in the case of small deformation. The proposed method is then used to analyze the mechanical response of solid propellants. The results show that the predicted results of multi-step stress relaxation and uniaxial tension under different strain rates of the material agree with the experimental results, which verifies the validity of the proposed method. Moreover, since the equilibrium response includes damage, the parameters calibrated by the proposed method can be used to predict the mechanical response of solid propellant with damage. Consequently, the parameters of the composite matrix are derived from the determined parameters of solid propellant, and a viscoelastic debonding criterion-based interface model is introduced to establish a representative volume element (RVE) model, thus achieving the interface debonding analysis in a wide range of strain (~100%), which provides an effective method supporting the prediction of mechanical response and microstructural damage evolution of solid propellants.

    Research on the Procedural Burning Characteristics of Cased Telescoped Ammunition Based on Digital Image Correlation Principle
    SHI Junfei, QIAN Linfang, CHEN Guangsong, YIN Qiang, LIU Daokun, LI Zhonggang
    2024, 45(4):  1047-1059.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2023.1174
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    The two-stage ignition and firing process of cased telescoped ammunition is experimentally researched to analyze the burning characteristics of charge and the movement characteristics of loadng and engraving. A high-speed camera system is used to capture the motion image sequences of every projectile group, and a test system for the procedural burning characteristics is devised and assembled. Based on the principle of digital image correlation, the image sequences are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, and the grooved morphology of the recovered band is analyzed and measured, so as to obtain the movement characteristics of projectile for one-stage ignition, the procedural burning characteristics for two-stage ignition, and the grooved morphology of the band. The findings demonstrate that the mass of fast-burning powder directly affects the loading performance of the first-stage ignition projectile. The loading time of projectile is significantly shortened and the loading speed is greatly increased when the mass of fast-burning ignition powder is increased. The premature fragmentation of combustible guide tube leads to a significant increase in the loading speed, resulting in a very poor band grooved morphology, which does not reliably seal the rear powder gas and steer the projectile motion, thus affecting the interior ballistic trajectory performance and the in-bore motion attitude of projectile. The reasonable matching design of fast-burning ignition powder and combustible guide tube can keep the break-up timing of combustible guide tube in a controllable range, so as to realize the ideal two-stage ignition and procedural burning design objectives.

    Military Cockpit Color Design Method Based on Deep Representation Learning and Genetic Algorithm
    SU Sheng, GU Sen, SONG Zhiqiang, LIU Ping
    2024, 45(4):  1060-1069.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2023.0456
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    The color design of military cockpits is a subjective part of industrial design for manned military equipment, and the rationality of the design is crucial. A military cockpit color matching method based on deep representation learning and genetic algorithm is proposed to improve the scientific nature of military cockpit color design. This method uses a deep representation learning model to predict the military cockpit color schemes and establishes a military cockpit color matching model based on color perception theory, which serves as a constraint condition for generating schemes. At the same time, an interactive genetic algorithm is introduced into the intelligent color matching system to optimize the parameters of neural network through manual guidance, and effectively iterate the predicted color matching schemes. The results show that the color matching schemes generated by the proposed method comply with the military cockpit color matching model, and the prediction accuracy of the proposed model combined with genetic algorithm is improved by 16%~18% compared to a single deep representation model. Compared to manual color design schemes, the satisfaction of the color schemes generated by the military cockpit intelligent color matching method is slightly higher, the design cycle is shortened by 80%~88%, and the color stability is improved by 6%~12%.

    Transformer-CNN-based Multi-feature Aggregation Algorithm for Real Battlefield Image Dehazing
    WANG Yongzhen, TONG Ming, YAN Xuefeng, WEI Mingqiang
    2024, 45(4):  1070-1081.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.0957
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    The development of military intelligence systems has a great influence on the fighting mode and winning mechanism of modern war. However, these systems are easily affected by haze and other bad weather conditions, resulting in blurred and degraded images, which brings challenges to the subsequent combat missions such as identification and tracking. Therefore, it is essential to restore the haze-free images on the battlefield. Since it is hard to capture the paired clean/hazy images, most existing methods adopt synthetic data for training. However, the gap between the real and synthetic hazy images will lead to the poor generalization of a model trained on synthetic data in the real world. To this end, a Transformer-CNN-based multi-feature aggregation algorithm is proposed for real battlefield image dehazing. This network adopts a semi-supervised framework to train the model with synthetic and real hazy images so that the model can better deal with the real hazy images. The algorithm applies a two-branch feature aggregation architecture to aggregate the local features extracted by CNN branch and the global features extracted by the Transformer branch to further improve the dehazing ability of the model. Moreover, a hazy battlefield image dataset is constructed to simulate the real battlefield hazy conditions. The experimental results show that, compared with 8 state-of-the-art image dehazing algorithms, the proposed algorithm performs well on both synthetic data and real images.

    Research on the Influence of Salt Spray Environment on the Movement of Typical Rifle Automaton
    ZHANG He, HUANG Yi, LIU Keyan, LI Pengchao, GU Tongguang, WANG Yongjuan, XU Cheng
    2024, 45(4):  1082-1093.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.0924
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    Salt spray environment has an important influence on the tactical and technical performance and operational effectiveness of automatic rifles. However, the influence mechanism of salt spray environment on the motion characteristics and failure of rifle automaton is still unclear. A small caliber automatic rifle is taken as the test object,and a life-test in salt spray environment is designed and carried out. A series of measurements and records are carried out on the rifle after each salt spray test, including non-contact measurement of automaton motion by high-speed photography, high precision measurement of the mass of rifle bolt, recoil spring parameters test, and photographic record of bolt box and guide rail surface morphology characteristics. The conditions of failure during the life-test are counted to obtain the typical fault patterns of automaton movement. The results show that the mass of rifle bolt increases gradually with the increase in salt spray test time. The free length and pre-pressure of the recoil spring gradually decrease, and the working pressure tends to be flat after decreasing. The speed at which the bolt carrier recoils to position decreases first and then increases. The speeds at which the bolt begins to return and returns to the original position decrease gradually, and they have the same changing trend. With the decrease of the speed at which the bolt carrier recoils to position, the number of motion faults of the automaton increases, and the multi-parameter changes caused by the salt spray environment have an obvious influence on the automaton motion. Based on the experimental study, the quantitive relation formulas for the changes of the mass of rifle bolt, the recoil spring parameters and the characteristic point velocity with time are built. Quantitive relation formulas provide a reference for inferring the parameter changes of moving parts of automaton in salt spray environment and analyzing their influences on faults in motion.

    Analysis and Experimental Verification of Yaw Motion Response Characteristics of High-speed Tracked Vehicle
    YUAN Yi, GAI Jiangtao, ZENG Gen, ZHOU Guangming, LI Xunming, MA Changjun
    2024, 45(4):  1094-1107.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1300
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    In order to study the handling characteristics of high-speed tracked vehicle to lay the foundation for the evaluation and control of its handling stability, the nonlinear steering dynamics model and linear two-degree-of-freedom linear steering dynamics model of high-speed tracked vehicle are established and verified by experiments. The transfer function of the yaw motion of high-speed tracked vehicles is derived using the two-degree-of-freedom linear model. Based on this, the time domain and frequency domain response characteristics of the yaw motion of high-speed tracked vehicles are analyzed, and the definitions of steady-state yaw rate gain and critical damping speed of tracked vehicles are proposed. The analyed result show that the steady-state yaw rate gain of tracked vehicle is less than 1, so the tracked vehicle has deficient steering characteristic. The damping ratio of tracked vehicle system is about 1. When the vehicle speed is less than the critical damping speed, the vehicle system is an overdamped system, and the rise time of yaw rate response is within 0.2 seconds. When the vehicle speed is equal to the critical damping speed, the vehicle system is a critially-damped system, and the rise time of yaw rate response is greater than 10 seconds. When the vehicle speed is greater than the critical damping speed, the vehicle system is an underdamped system, and the rise time of yaw rate response decreases rapidly to 2-3 seconds.

    Expectation Maximization Time Delay Estimation Algorithm Based on Wavelet Singular Feature Constraint
    ZHU Xiaoting, ZHANG Jun, WANG Lu, CHEN Zhifei, BAO Ming, WANG Yi
    2024, 45(4):  1108-1116.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1078
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    To improve the accuracy of time delay estimation for non-stationary signals under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), an expectation maximization time delay estimation algorithm based on wavelet singular feature constraint is presented. A generalized cross-correlation matrix of the wavelet singularity feature scale is designed, and an expectation maximization model under the constraints of multiscale wavelet singularity feature is constructed. The parameter update formula is deduced, and the expectation maximization algorithm is used to iterate in parallel to obtain the adaptive scale of the signal and the optimal time delay estimate of the sound source signal at the maximum singularity significance. The simulated and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher accuracy of time delay estimation than the traditional generalized cross-correlation time delay estimation algorithm and the improved algorithm under low signal-to-noise ratio, and effectively improves the estimation success rate within the error constraints.

    Path Planning of Tidal Flat Tracked Vehicle Based on CB-RRT* Algorithm
    PAN Zuodong, ZHOU Yue, GUO Wei, XU Gaofei, SUN Yu
    2024, 45(4):  1117-1128.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1089
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    Cauchy Bessel rapidly-exploring random tree star (CB-RRT*) algorithm is proposed for the path planning of tracked vehicle for long-term surveying operations in tidal flat environments. In order to plan a safe path, a tidal flat prediction model is constructed based on the global map. The tidal data and the distance from the tidal flat tracked vehicle to the demarcation area. Using the Cauchy probability density function to sample the key tree nodes of the initial path can reduce the sampling range and improve the utilization of nodes, which increases the speed of multiple path planning of tidal flat tracked vehicle moving to a target point. Considering the maximum corner constraint to set the corresponding coefficient in the process of reselecting the parent node and using the continuous quadratic Bezier curve to splicing to generate a path, the smoothness of the path can be improved and the safety problem caused by the excessive deviation between the smoothed path and the original path can be also solved. The simulated results show that CB-RRT* algorithm can greatly improve the convergence of the algorithm and the smoothness of the path in the static and dynamic tidal flat environments, and ensures the optimal path length. The proposed method can ensure the long-term safe operation of tidal flat tracked vehicle in various tidal flat environments.

    Ultra-local Model-free Current Predictive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Nonlinear Disturbance Compensation
    CHEN Guiming, XU Lingliang
    2024, 45(4):  1129-1140.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1059
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    During motor operation, the motor parameters change to cause parameter drift, and the motor is affected by the internal and external unknown disturbances, which leads to reduced motor control performance, poor anti-interference performance, and low robustness. To solve these problems, an ultra-local model-free current predictive control (MFCPC) method of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based on nonlinear disturbance compensation (NDC) is proposed. The proposed method only uses the input and output current loop to establish MFCPC without involving any motor parameters, thus solving the problem of model mismatch caused by parameter changes. For the total disturbance of the system, a NDC model is established, which can estimate the total disturbance accurately and stably, make a feedforward compensation, update the control information in real time, and adjust only two control parameters. To prevent the generation of large current, a current-limiting control is established to improve motor control performance. Simulated and experimental results show that the proposed control method has strong robustness and anti-interference ability against parameter change and external disturbance. It can realize the fast dynamic response, reduce the current ripple and current static difference, and achieve the better dynamic and static performances of current loop. Moreover, it can suppress the speed pulsation and overshoot, and track the rated speed stably, which is conducive to the smooth operation of the motor.

    Research on the Transmission Scheme of Multi-aircraft Network Based on D2D Communication and Virtual MIMO
    LIU Zhifeng, ZHANG Xue, LI Ping, ZHANG Jihao, LI Siqi, WANG Weidong, GONG Peng
    2024, 45(4):  1141-1147.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1222
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    For the purpose of improving the performance of multi-aircraft network without applying for more resources, a transmission scheme that combines the device-to-device (D2D) communication of 5G with the virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) of relay communication is proposed, in the network that some nodes can connect directly and the path loss varies with different routes. The transmission scheme focuses on impact to signal-to-noise ratio, bit error rate and access probability which are caused by various combinations of cooperative communication protocols and distributed space time coding (DSTC). The simulated results show that the proposed transmission scheme based on D2D and virtual MIMO's combination can effectively improve the performance of multi-aircraft network without adding the resources, and the distributed space time coding is introducing to further optimize the performance of bit error rate. And the improvements of evaluating indicators of 3 transmission protocols are different.

    Effect of Particle Injection Velocity on Aluminum Powder/air Two-phase Rotating Detonation Waves
    LI Shiquan, ZHU Wenchao, SUN Fangping, WANG Yuhui, WANG Jianping
    2024, 45(4):  1148-1157.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.0895
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    The effect of particle injection velocity on the two-phase flow field of a rotating detonation engine fueled by aluminum powder and air is studied. The two-dimensional rotating detonation combustion for the aluminum particles with the injection temperature of 300K and the high temperature air with the total inflow temperature of 900K is simulated by using the discrete phase model, one-step surface reaction including kinetic/diffusion-limited rate surface combustion model and multiple-step gas phase decomposition reaction model and considering the devolatilization of incompletely unburned particles. Results show that the particle injection velocity near the inlet is lower than that of air, which results in an incomplete overlap between the air triangle and the particle triangle. As the particle injection velocity increases from 1m/s to 100m/s, the detonation velocity and temperature first decreases and then increases. There is a significant temperature difference between particles and air injected into the combustion chamber, which leads to unstable detonation wave propagation. The detonation wave has the best stability when the particle injection velocity is 70m/s.

    Effect of Friction on Deployment Dynamics of Non-conductive Space Tether
    LIANG Fuwen, MIAO Long, TIAN Feng, SONG Jiahui, BAI Song, HE Zihao, WANG Ningfei
    2024, 45(4):  1158-1167.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.0916
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    The simulation results of the deployment dynamics of non-conductive space tether are inconsistent with the actual situation due to the lack of deployment friction data. To solve this problem, the deployment friction measurement experiments of non-conductive space tether are conducted based on a ground tether deployment platform, the effects of different materials, diameters, winding direction, and deployment velocity of tether on the deployment friction are studied, the main factors affecting the “ball effect” unstable phenomenon during the deployment process are clarified, and the quantitative relationship between the deployment friction and the deployment conditions is determine. By further study of tether deployment dynamics simulation, it is found that deployment friction has a significant influence on the tether deployment: for a 500m long tether, the difference between the deployment duration without considering deployment friction and the deployment duration with considering deployment friction is about 20% at an initial deployment velocity of 2m/s.

    LDPC-aided Decision Feedback Channel Estimation and Equalization Method
    LI Jiaxuan, DING Xuhui, YANG Kai, DAI Jibo, BU Xiangyuan, AN Jianping
    2024, 45(4):  1168-1175.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1041
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    Under the environment of severely channel frequency selective fading, the traditional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) non-blind channel estimation and equalization method has poor system bit error rate performance, and needs to increase the insertion of pilot symbols in a signal, which reduces the system throughput. A low density parity check code (LDPC)- aided decision feedback channel estimation and equalization method is proposed for the above problems. The proposed method introduces the LDPC coding gain into the decision feedback loop, which improves the convergence. And it achieves the asymptotic performance of non-blind channel estimation and equalization methods under the condition of few pilot symbols inserted. Meanwhile, an improved channel estimation algorithm based on conditional maximum likelihood (CML) principle is proposed. This algorithm detects the effective tap signals based on the principle of constant false alarm to improve the channel estimation accuracy, and can be combined with the proposed decision feedback channel estimation and equalization method. The simulated results show that, under the channel environment selected in the simulation, the LDPC-aided decision feedback channel estimation and equalization method has 11-13dB improvement in bit error performance compared with the traditional decision feedback method, and has excellent system error performance and robustness.

    Research on LDPC Decoding Algorithm with High Efficiency and Low Complexity for Space-based Information Transmission
    ZHOU Kexin, DING Xuhui, LÜ Dedong, BU Xiangyuan, An Jianping
    2024, 45(4):  1176-1185.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1044
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    Military satellite communication is required to fulfill the need of real-time information transmission, high transmission rate, large communication capacity and adaptability to the time-varying characteristics of inter-satellite links, so the channel coding schemes with high coding gain and high throughput are adopted. Low-density parity-check (LDPC) code has become one of the main channel coding standards for its excellent error-correction performance which can approximately achieve the Shannon limit and its parallel computing capability. However, there are still some problems in its decoder module design of satellite communication receiver, such as failure of real-time online stopping judgement on iterative decoding, limited system throughput, and excessive decision circuits that reduce the power and real-time performance of decoding circuit. This paper adopts the CCSDS coding standards for deep space communication, and proposes the design of an iterative decoding stopping criterion algorithm based on a factor graph model. The algorithm tightly couples the evolution of normalized syndrome satisfaction probability with the state of LDPC decoder, so as to achieve high performance and low complexity. The results show that, when high throughput is preferentially considered, the bit error rate (BER) performance is degraded by 0.13dB, and meanwhile the average number of iterations (ANI) in medium and low SNRs is reduced by more than 50%; when error-correcting performance is preferentially considered, BER performance is only degraded by 0.02dB. Whereas, the ANI is greatly reduced. The proposed algorithm serves as an effective solution for the design of low complexity and high efficiency LDPC decoder.

    Design and Implementation of Information Interactive Interface between QualNet and Virtual Machine for Link16
    YANG Haowei, GONG Peng, ZHANG Jihao, WANG Weidong, TANG Feixi, ZHOU Zijiao, ZHANG Guangwei
    2024, 45(4):  1186-1195.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1217
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    Link16 is a high-speed line-of-sight tactical data link adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense and is widely used in the U.S. Navy, joint forces, and NATO forces, for which testing and evaluation is of military importance. Integrating physical Link16 equipment into simulation testing through hardware-in-the-loop technology can effectively improve the realism and accuracy of test results. However, the cost issue still arises when physical equipment networking test is required in the testing scenario. Therefore, a Link16-specific model based on QualNet MAC layer and a matching virtual machine information interactive interface are proposed. This model can realistically simulate Link16 communication behavior, achieve the functions such as node competition access, time slot division, and NPG grouping. Based on data distributed services, the virtual machine and the QualNet simulation server are connected through this interface, thereby incorporating the Link16 equipment model running on the virtual machine into the QualNet testing scenario. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model has high realism and accuracy, and the interface introduces a delay of no more than 1ms, providing a new method for large-scale data link network testing.

    Improvement on the Calculation Method for Reflected Pressure of Shock Wave in Underwater Explosion
    YAN Zechen, YUE Songlin, QIU Yanyu, WANG Jianping, ZHAO Yuetang, SHI Jie, LI Xu
    2024, 45(4):  1196-1207.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1037
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    Gravity dam is a kind of common large concrete hydraulic construction. In order to explore a calculation method for the reflected pressure of shock wave applicable to the near area of hydraulic structure, a method for calculating the reflected pressure of shock wave of the underwater explosion on the rigid wall with clear physical connotation is derived strictly by using the three conservation basic relations of mass, momentum and energy on the shock wave front and the equation of state of condensed medium. Based on the relationship between shock wave velocity and particle velocity in continuous medium, the determination method of the state parameter k of water is given, and the law of state parameter k decaying exponentially with incident shock wave pressure is revealed. It is found that the change of k value has a significant impact on the calculation result of reflected pressure of shock wave when the incident pressure is above 725MPa. By comparing with the calculation methods proposed by Cole[12], Henrych[14], and Luo, et al[15], and the numerical simulation, the results show that the proposed calculation method has a wider application scope and higher calculation accuracy, and it also reveals theoretically for the first time that the reflection pressure coefficient of underwater explosion shock wave ranges from 2.00 to 4.49.

    Research on Two-dimensional Simulation Model of Discharge Instability of Hollow Cathode Plume Plasma
    TIAN Feng, MIAO Long, LIANG Fuwen, SONG Jiahui, HE Zihao, WU Zhiwen, WANG Ningfei
    2024, 45(4):  1208-1218.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.0946
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    In the process of hollow cathode discharge, the space potential oscillation affects its working performance, and the high-energy ions generated in the oscillation process cause sputtering corrosion to the cathode orifice, which seriously affect the lifetime of hollow cathode. In this paper, an integrated coupling model consisting of prticle-in-cell (PIC) model, oscillation amplitude model and equivalent circuit model is established to calculate the potential oscillation characteristics of hollow cathode. Firstly, PIC model is used to calculate the discharge characteristics of plume plasma under the conditions of different discharge currents, discharge voltages and gas flow rates, and the spatial plasma distribution of time-averaged parameters such as plume potential, plasma number density, electric field strength and electron temperature is obtained. Secondly, based on the plasma aggregation and dissipation theory, the potential oscillation amplitude model is established, and the spatial potential oscillation amplitude is estimated according to the calculated time-averaged parameters. Finally, the plasma time-averaged parameters and potential amplitude oscillation parameters are taken as input parameters and brought into the hollow cathode discharge equivalent circuit model to obtain the potential oscillation waveform under the corresponding working conditions. By comparing with the experimental results, it is found that the integrated coupling model established in this paper can predict the plasma potential oscillation of hollow cathode plume, and the research results can be used to guide the stable discharge of hollow cathode, thus improving its service lifetime.

    Event-triggered Surface Extended Target Tracking with Intermittent Measurements
    LIANG Yuan, QI Guoqing, CHEN Ye, LI Yinya, SHENG Andong
    2024, 45(4):  1219-1228.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1017
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    Although the existing methods for surface extended target tracking have the improved estimation performance, they increase the communication costs of target tracking systems. Besides, they can’t avoid the influences of intermittent measurements. In order to solve these problems, the components of measurement vectors are divided into different groups according to the measuring methods of extended target information, and a measuring model described by a random matrix is developed. And then a surface extended target tracking model with intermittent measurements is developed by combining the proposed measuring model with the target motion model. Based on the proposed target tracking model, a multi-channel decoupled event-triggered mechanism is proposed to schedule the data transmissions between the sensor and the estimation center. Lastly, an event-triggered surface extended target tracking method is provided based on the cubature Kalman filtering algorithm. Simulated results show that the proposed method can be used to significantly reduce the communication consumptions with preserving estimation performance, and avoid the influences of intermittent measurements.

    Energy Consumption Modeling for a Heavy-duty Purely Electric-powered Vehicle
    WANG Erlie, WANG Shuai, PI Dawei, WANG Hongliang, WANG Xianhui, XIE Boyuan
    2024, 45(4):  1229-1236.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1079
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    High-precision energy consumption prediction is an important prerequisite for accurately predicting the running range of vehicle. A combined energy consumption model is established for a heavy-duty purely electric-powered vehicle operating on unstructured roads with significant load changes. The proposed model consists of two parts: a basic model for energy consumption calculation and a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network for difference correction. Based on the efficiency modeling of drive motor and transmission, the basic model is established in combination with vehicle driving dynamics. Then the LSTM neural network is used to correct the difference between the energy consumption prediction result of the basic model and the power test value of vehicle under typical operating conditions, which effectively improves the prediction accuracy of vehicle energy consumption under significantly variable loads and low signal-to-noise ratio gradient environments. Therefore, the combined energy consumption model has the advantages of simple parameters and model fitting without explaining the energy consumption laws. The real vehicle tests are analyzed. Compared with the VT-Micro model and the Radial basis function (RBF) neural network model for energy consumption, the average error rate of power prediction of the proposed combined model is reduced by 17.76% and 3.35%, respectively, enabling the accurate real-time prediction of energy consumption for the heavy-duty purely electric-powered vehicle under complex operating conditions.

    Mission Support Capability Assessment of Early-warning Combat System-of-systems Based on Temporal Network Simulation and Contribution Rate
    YU Jintao, XIAO Bing, CUI Yuzhu, QI Dong, YAN Tao
    2024, 45(4):  1237-1251.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1038
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    In response to the problems of capability errors in networked modelling, lack of dynamic characteristics of mission capabilities, and certain errors between assessment results and realistic effectiveness in the assessment of mission support capabilities of early-warning combat system-of-systems (EWCSOS), a method of assessing the mission support capability of EWCSOS based on temporal network simulation and contribution rate is presented. Firstly, based on the static network model of EWCSOS, it is extended to the temporal combat network, and the time-series path and temporal effectiveness loop are defined. Secondly, the mission requirements and capabilities are matched according to the mission hierarchical decomposition, and then the mapping relation between the temporal network and multi-Agent simulation is established to build a simulation framework which is close to actual operations. Finally, the mission support capability of different combat units in EWCSOS is calculated by using the idea of contribution ratio to analyze the mission support capability of early-warning combat system-of-systems based on simulation data and integrating the uncertain indicators represented by asymmetric Gaussian affiliation functions and precise indicators represented by statistical results with similarity weights. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is efficient and close to the actual capability of the equipment, and can reduce the evaluation error with realistic results, which provides technical support for the system capability assessment and equipment requirement justification.

    Sensor Fault Diagnosis Method of Double Closed Loop Ratio Control System
    WANG Jiahao, NA Wenbo, LIU Zhiwei, ZAN Qi, WANG Zheng
    2024, 45(4):  1252-1263.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.0969
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    The fault diagnosis of double closed loop ratio control system is more complicated due to the lag effect of master slave loop and the regulating effect of closed loop. Aiming at the problem that sensor faults are difficult to be identified in this system, a data-driven fault diagnosis method is proposed by analyzing the real-time data reflecting the dynamic characteristics of the system. In this method, a fault detection model is established by calibrating the detection threshold using Pauta criterion; A fault location model is established based on the hysteresis characteristic of sensor fault propagation; a fault estimation model is established based on the amplitude characteristics of abrupt faults; a fault separation model is established by using the change trend of dynamic process of fault regulation; and a dynamic model of fault diagnosis is obtained by online data calibration. The effectiveness and high precision of the proposed method are verified by experiments. The results show that the proposed method is suitable for the real-time fault diagnosis of sensors in general double closed loop ratio control system. The accuracy of fault detection can reach 98.5%, the accuracy of fault location can reach 98.5%, the accuracy of fault estimation can reach 99.28%, and the accuracy of fault separation can reach 98%.

    Application of Two-parameter Threshold Function Based on Energy Thresholds in Denoising of Physiological Signal
    ZHAO Wei, ZHUO Zhihai, ZHANG Yuexia
    2024, 45(4):  1264-1272.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1058
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    To deal with the problems that the weak physiological signals are easily drowned by noise and the poor denoising effect and signal extraction distortion exist in traditional wavelet denoising method, an improved wavelet threshold denoising method based on the energy distribution characteristics of wavelet coefficients is proposed. The threshold is determined by calculating the energy of wavelet coefficient in each layer, which avoids the imbalance of threshold calculation while improving the adaptivity and the fidelity of weak signals. An improved adjustable two-parameter threshold function is used to process the wavelet coefficients, which allows the changing trend of threshold function to be freely adjusted while the degree of compression of the wavelet coefficients is controlled. The experimental results show that the improved wavelet threshold denoising method has more obvious advantages in signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square percentage and root-mean-square error compared with two traditional denoising algorithms (the empirical modal decomposition algorithm and the filter algorithm) and 12 traditional algorithms for combining wavelet thresholding and thresholding functions, and achieves the smallest average relative error and the smallest volatility in the measured physiological signal.

    Lightweight Image Super-resolution Reconstruction Based on Cross-fusion of Spatial Features
    ZHAO Xiaoqiang, CHENG Wei
    2024, 45(4):  1273-1284.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.0945
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    In recent years, the deep learning technology has significantly improved the performance of single image super-resolution reconstruction (SISR). However, SISR algorithm based on thedeep learning technology has some problems, such as alarge quantity of model parameters, complex network structure and high resource consumption. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a lightweight image super-resolution reconstruction algorithm based on spatial feature cross-fusion. The algorithm uses the multiple local feature fusion modules and the feature cross-enhancement modules to form a nonlinear mapping unit, and learns thestepwise polymerization image features through residuals to extract more accurate residual information. At the same time, the symmetric structure is used to map thefeatures to two branches, and the high-frequency components are extracted by performing thefeature intersection and themultiplication of corresponding elements, which refines thefeatures and increases the network nonlinearity. In each feature cross-enhancement module, the heterogeneous convolution is used instead of standard convolution to split and fuse two branches, which effectively reduces the parameters of the network and makes the network achieve a relative balance between parameters and performance. Finally, a multi-level integration module is used to enhance the correlation of features in different stages. Experiments on benchmark data sets show that the proposed method not only reduces the model parameters, but also achieves good results in peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity, and the edge structure of the reconstructed image is complete, the overall outline is clear and the details are more abundant.

    Thermal Characteristics of Large Span Double Row Tapered Roller Bearing
    WANG Yiming, WANG Hengdi, CUI Yongcun, LI Chang, DENG Sier
    2024, 45(4):  1285-1296.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1056
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    The friction heating has an effect on the bearing life. A dynamic analysis model of large span double row tapered roller bearings for heavy duty special vehicles and a refined mathematical model of bearing power consumption, in which the roller shape modification is considered,are established based on the dynamic theory of rolling bearings. The influences of structure and working condition parameters on bearing friction power consumption are studied, and the contact temperature characteristics of the roller and the inner race, the outer race and the big rib are analyzed. The results show that the maximum temperature in the contact area among roller and rib and raceway increases with the increase in rotating speed, radial load and the decrease in inner raceway angle, and the maximum temperature in the contact area between roller and rib increases rapidly. With the increase in axial load, the maximum temperature of the contact area among the maximum loaded roller and the big flange of the ring and the raceway increases, and the maximum temperature of the contact area of the big flange of the ring increases rapidly. The temperature at the relaxation side also increases, but the rate of increase is slow. The overturning moment may cause the temperature difference between the two rows of rolling elelemts, and a suitable span can be selected to reduce the influence of overturning moment on the bearing temperature.

    Study on Similarity and Equivalent Design Method of Steel Plate Targets with Different Materials Based on Modified Compensation Model
    ZHANG Jianwei, WU Ziqi, ZHANG Fengchao, XING Chengcheng, MENG Fanxing
    2024, 45(4):  1297-1310.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1255
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    The penetration test of ship plate frame structure is often used to assess the penetration ability of projectile into ship. Due to the high purchasing and processing costs of special steel, it is necessary to carry out research on the similarity law and material equivalent method of projectile penetrating into metal target plate. The similarity of the residual velocities of three kinds of projectiles during vertical penetration into steel plates made of different materials is studied based on the similarity theory. The dimensionless residual velocities are expressed as the function of dimensionless plate thickness and dimensionless dynamic yield stress of target plate. The correction and compensation model method is applied for the different materials of model and the prototype target plates. A similarity design method is established to achieve the same residual velocity as the prototype by changing the thickness of model plate,And the equivalent coefficients of two materials is obtained through the fitting of numerically simulated results, which are 0.5047 for blunt-nosed projectiles, 0.3943 for pointed nose projectiles, and 0.3845 for truncated-oval-shaped projectiles.

    Loss and Distortion Characteristics of Large Two-plate Guided-wave Antennas for Transmitting Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse
    WU Gang, XIAO Jing, XIE Linshen
    2024, 45(4):  1311-1320.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1243
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    Large guided-wave nuclear electromagnetic pulse simulators are used to produce a free-space illumination environment for testing system-level equipment. For the two-plate guided-wave antenna usually used in these simulators, there may exist the transmission loss or waveform distortion problems as if the design has not been optimized. Several main influencing factors are analyzed with electromagnetic simulation software and comparisons of series of examples. These factors include the permittivity loss of soil and its suppression, the discontinuity of structure from the front conic plate to the parallel plate, the field energy leakage through the wire gaps for the wire-array upper plate, and so on. It is shown that, for the usual case of equal widths of the upper and ground plates, the dissipation of soil beneath the ground plate shall result in the loss of voltage transmission efficiency greater than 25 percent. And the lower-plate width is properly enlarged to screen the loss of soil, which almost eliminates the transmission efficiency loss of voltage. Secondly, the discontinuity of structure at the turning point of the upper plate shall result in a duplex peak characteristic of E-field waveforms with lowered amplitudes and distorted profiles for most view points in the parallel section. For the wire-gap leakage effect, a maximal wire-gap of 0.3m may be sufficient to maintain the fast rise time of the exciting pulse. Finally, as an application example, a guided-wave antenna is designed to obtain a test volume greater than 20m×20m×10m,which has a 60-meter-long and 15-meter-high conical section consisting of 100 wires and a ground plate with an enlarging width of 3 meters. The antenna can transmit the double-exponential pulse with 2.5-3ns rise time fairly well to the main test volume.

    A Power Allocation Method for Three-dimensional Maneuvering Tracking of Colocated MIMO Radar Based on Air Defense QoS Model
    LI Zhengjie, CHEN Hongyin, XIE Junwei, ZHANG Haowei, LIU Bin
    2024, 45(4):  1321-1331.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1252
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    Aiming at the problem of low power resource utilization for multi-function radar in air defense operation, this paper proposes a power allocation method for three-dimensional maneuvering tracking based on the quality of service (QoS) model, which achieves the improvement in multiple target tracking (MTT) performance with differentiated standards. The target three-dimensional maneuvering model is established as an adaptive current statistical (ACS) model, and the adaptive adjustment is achieved by associating the acceleration covariance with the estimation error covariance matrix. On this basis, the Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bound (BCRLB) under three-dimensional tracking is derived and utilized as a criterion of tracking error. Subsequently, a closed-loop power optimization allocation mechanism under the air defense QoS model is established by constructing a functional relationship between the target threat degree and the expected tracking accuracy. In the last, it is proved that the formulated power optimal allocation model is a convex optimization problem, which is further transformed into a semi-definite programming (SDP) problem for solving. Simulated results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the global tracking performance compared with the traditional power allocation methods.

    Knowledge-based Rapid Preparation Method for Complex Product Assembly Process
    ZHAI Sikuan, LIU Jianhua, ZHUANG Cunbo
    2024, 45(4):  1332-1343.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.1225
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    Aiming at the problems of low preparation efficiency, high quality fluctuation and low automation and intelligence in the process of complex product assembly process design, a fast preparation method for assembly process with semantic-oriented knowledge instance retrieval and reuse is proposed. A two-layer assembly process knowledge model based on the knowledge retrieval layer and the knowledge instance layer is established by analyzing the assembly process of complex product, and the knowledge is classified in terms of content, type, function and application direction. On this basis, a process document semantic analysis method based on the Sentence-BERT sentence embeddings model is proposed for the existing knowledge instances. The semantic retrieval method of process knowledge is given combined with the cosine similarity algorithm, and the rapid reuse of knowledge in the design process of assembly process is realized. Taking aerospace products as an example, a rapid design management system of aerospace product assembly process is developed, and a knowledge base for the assembly process is constructed and put into operation in an aerospace enterprise to verify the feasibility of the proposed method, resulting in a significant increase in process preparation efficiency.

    Battlefield Image Dehazing Based on Global Compensation Attention Mechanism
    LIN Sen, WANG Jingang, GAO Hongwei
    2024, 45(4):  1344-1353.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.0786
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    In modern war, images and other carriers are widely used to obtain information. However, the images obtained in foggy environment not only affect scene rendering, but also mask important features. In order to improve the use value of fog-degraded images in modern warfare, a battlefield image dehazing method based on the global compensation attention mechanism is proposed. A global compensation module is constructed to ensure the integrity of output image, and channel down sampling is added to restore the clear image. The dense residual module is used to learn the nonlinear mapping between degraded image and clear image. In addition, an attention mechanism is added to improve the flexible processing capability of the network. The network can fully learn the feature information by increasing the number of channels of the input image. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves excellent results in both subjective and objective evaluation compared with classical or novel image dehazing methods. The proposed method fully combines the attention mechanism with the global compensation module to effectively alleviate the problem of battlefield image degradation. At the same time, it pays attention to feature enhancement to enable the complete presentation of information and ultimately achieve better performance.

    High-temperature Oxidation Behavior of Barrel Materials
    ZHANG Cheng, ZHANG Yuqi, WEN Xiangli, BAI Pengpeng, MENG Yonggang, MA Liran, TIAN Yu
    2024, 45(4):  1354-1362.  doi:10.12382/bgxb.2022.0901
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    With the increase in firepower strike requirements and the development of high-powered artillery, the high-temperature oxidation of barrel materials is becoming more and more serious, which seriously affects the performance of weapon and even leads to the scrapping of weapon.However, there is little research on the anti-oxidation performance of barrel materials at present.In this paper, the oxidation resistances and oxidation mechanisms of three barrel materials, i.e.,PCrNi3MoVA steel. 30SiMn2MoVA steel and MPS700 steel, at 600℃ in airare investigated. The cross-sectional morphology and phases of the oxide layers are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The oxidation kinetics of three barrrel materials were analyzed. The results show that the oxide film thicknesses of the three steels gradually thicken and the rate of increaseinthickness gradually decreaseswith the increase in oxidation time. The oxidation kinetics curves of the three barrel materials are consistent with the parabolic growth kinetics law of oxide film. At 600℃, the internal oxide layer of PCrNi3MoVA steel forms an adhesive layer of a network structure consisting mainlyof Ni and Cr-richspinel oxides but theadhesive layerdoes not act as a barrier against oxidation.The inner layer of oxide layer of 30SiMn2MoVA steel is a porous aggregation zone of Si element oxide with a loose structure and relatively serious oxide flaking.The internal oxide layer of MPS700 steel forms a protective Cr-rich oxide layer that effectively prevents further oxidation. At the same time, Mo element stabilises the passivation film and indirectly improves oxidation resistance. Compared with PCrNi3MoVA steel and 30SiMn2MoVA steel, MPS700 steel can better form a dense oxidized layer under high temperature condition, so as to reduce the high temperature oxidation and wear degree of the matrix under high temperature conditions. MPS700 steel is more suitable for the preparation of long life and high reliability barrel.